“Bronx” di Roma antica
Si fa un gran parlare di quale sia la zona più malfamata di Roma, quale sia il vero Bronx all’ombra del Cupolone. Stilare una classifica sarebbe un’impresa piuttosto ardua, anche per la difficoltà di definire i parametri per misurare quanto una zona sia più o meno pericolosa. Se prendessimo gli”“scippi come unità di misura, ad esempio, scopriremmo che le zone del centro storico sono in cima alla classifica, mentre per molestie domestiche dovremmo cercare più in periferia. Non è di Corviale, Laurentino 38, Tor Bella Monaca o altre aree della periferia cittadina di cui vogliamo argomentare, bensì di alcune zone considerate “a rischio” nella Roma del passato. Iniziamo dalla Roma più antica: qui, dal tempo della repubblica, esisteva una zona dove abitava la popolazione meno abbiente. Si chiamava Suburra, e corrispondeva in gran parte all’odierno rione Monti. Si sviluppava a partire dalla zona dei Fori Imperiali lungo l’odierna via Leonina e via della Madonna dei Monti. Esistevano una Suburra Minor e una Maior, quest’ultima corrispondente all’area alta attorno alla chiesa di San Pietro in Vincoli, piuttosto ben frequentata. La Suburra minor era il vero Bronx di Roma, malfamato, pericoloso e insalubre, non meritava neppure di essere parte della città vera e propria, era una città inferiore, una sotto-città da cui il nome “sub-Urbe”, poi tramutato in Suburra e adattato n”“dentemente nella parola inglese suburb. Era un intricatissimo reticolo di vicoli, alcuni larghi appena per il passaggio di una persona, con case in legno alte fino a quattro piani, fogne all’aria aperta e acqua corrente solo per le fontanelle pubbliche, botteghe artigiane e spacci di ogni genere. Girare per la Suburra significava rischiare la vita sia per i probabili brutti incontri sia per le condizioni igieniche e di sicurezza. Un eloquente segno di quella città minore, di quel degrado, sopravvive sorprendentemente fino ai giorni nostri. Da via dei Fori Imperiali, guardando verso il foro di Augusto e il tempio di Marte Ultore, si vede un altissimo muro in blocchi di pietra grigia che sfiora i trentatré metri d’altezza. Fu fatto costruire in epoca imperiale proprio per proteggere dagli incendi la zona sfarzosa dei Fori da quella degradata della Suburra. Non a caso quegli strani blocchetti sono ricavati da un tipo di pietra che i romani consideravano resistente al fuoco e uniti tra di loro per mezzo di perni a secco senza malta. Oggi il rione Monti ha sicuramente perso l’etichetta di zona malfamata, e si percepisce a malapena un clima“ancora popolare.
Nel medioevo e fino a poco meno di due secoli fa, un piccolo angolo ambiguo e pericoloso si trovava lungo la breve via di Panico a ridosso di ponte Sant’Angelo. A quel tempo non esisteva ancora né il Lungotevere né corso Vittorio Emanuele. Entrare in via di Panico significava accedere all’imprudente labirinto di vicoli del Campo Marzio, popolati di gentaglia abile con il coltello, pronta a derubare il romano sprovveduto o il pellegrino appena giunto in città. Nel famoso monologo popolare romanesco Er Fattaccio, Americo Giuliani scrive: «Poi, Giggi se cambiò!!! Se fece amico co’ li più peggio bulli dell’urione, lassò er lavoro bazzicò Panico».”
Il 25 Aprile
Penso che Pertini condensi nel suo personaggio rimasto alla storia d'Italia tutto quello che si dovrebbe trovare in un onesto uomo politico nel nostro paese. Come disse Montanelli: "Non serve essere socialisti per amare Pertini, tutto ciò ch'egli dica o faccia profuma di pulizia, lealtà e sincerità". Sarà sicuramente l'epoca differente ma anche solo ascoltare o leggere un discorso di Pertini commuove, apre la mente, la rimette in moto come un combustibile sconosciuto. La fine retorica, mai banale o pesante ma sempre chiara e forte che si percepisce ascoltandolo insinua un sentimento di calore e sicurezza nell'ascoltatore che difficilmente si prova sentendo parlare qualche politico venuto dopo e non stupisce il fatto che tutti lo amassero e lo considerassero come il nonno buono e saggio degli italiani.
In questo giorno tanto importante e tanto bistrattato che dovrebbe essere la festa dell'Italia intera che ricorda lo sforzo dei propri giovani per liberarla e che invece subisce ancora, e sempre di più, le violenze di persone (politici in testa) che preferiscono voltare pagina dimenticando e lasciando che il rischio reale di ricadere in errori simili al fascismo si ripresenti sulla testa di una nazione troppo giovane per poter tagliare il cordone ombelicale con la resistenza, sua vera ed unica madre.
Recano i nomi, queste pietre miliari, di reparti delle forze armate, ufficiali e soldati che vollero restare fedeli soltanto al giuramento di fedeltà alla patria invasa dai tedeschi, oppressa dai fascisti: le divisioni «Ariete» e «Piave» che si batterono qui nel Lazio per contrastare l'avanzata delle unità corazzate tedesche; i granatieri del battaglione «Sassari» che valorosamente insieme con il popolo minuto di Roma affrontarono i tedeschi a porta San Paolo; la divisione «Acqui» che fieramente sostenne una lotta senza speranza a Cefalonia e a Corfù; i superstiti delle divisioni «Murge», «Macerata» e «Zara» che danno vita alla brigata partigiana «Mameli»; i reparti militari che con i partigiani di Boves fecero della Bisalta una roccaforte inespugnabile.
Giustamente, dunque, quando si ricorda la Resistenza si parla di Secondo Risorgimento. Ma tra il Primo e il Secondo Risorgimento vi è una differenza sostanziale. Nel Primo Risorgimento protagoniste sono minoranze della piccola e media borghesia, anche se figli del popolo partecipano alle ardite imprese di Garibaldi e di Pisacane. Nel Secondo Risorgimento protagonista è il popolo. Cioè guerra popolare fu la guerra di Liberazione. Vi partecipano in massa operai e contadini, gli appartenenti a quella classe lavoratrice che sotto il fascismo aveva visto i figli suoi migliori fieramente affrontare le condanne del tribunale speciale al grido della loro fede.
E la classe operaia partecipa agli scioperi sotto il fascismo e poi durante l'occupazione nazista, scioperi politici, non per rivendicazioni salariali, ma per combattere la dittatura e lo straniero e centinaia di questi scioperanti saranno, poi, inviati nei campi di sterminio in Germania, ove molti di essi troveranno una morte atroce.Saranno i contadini del Piemonte, di Romagna e dell'Emilia a battersi e ad assistere le formazioni partigiane. Senza questa assistenza offerta generosamente dai contadini, la guerra di Liberazione sarebbe stata molto più dura. La più nobile espressione di questa lotta e di questa generosità della classe contadina è la famiglia Cervi. E saranno sempre figli del popolo a dar vita alle gloriose formazioni partigia
In una città che ha risonato così spesso di invocazioni e grida, dove una infinità di morti violente si sono consumate (da qui l’epiteto :”li mortacci..tua!”), non mancano luoghi che evocano la morte o ad essa dedicati.
Non mi riferisco a cimiteri ma luoghi particolari e spesso ad opera di artisti sommi.
Cominciamo con la chiesa di S.Giacomo in Settimiana, in via della Lungare, pieno trastevere. E’ una piccola chiesa che custodisce un curiosissimo monumento di Gian Lorenzo Bernini : “La memoria funebre di Ippolito Merenda” . un giurista, raffigurata con uno scheletro alato che si libra sorreggendo con le adunche dita e con i denti la scritta commemorativa del defunto.
Sempre il Bernini con il suo macabro realismo lo troviamo in San Pietro nei particolari del monumento funebre di papa Alessandro VII: in alto si vede il pontefice assorto e sotto, dissimulata solo in parte la porta della morte che tiene in mano una clessidra per avvertire il papa del tempo scaduto.
Sempre in San Pietro , il monumento dedicato a Pao0lo III , considerato il capolavoro di Guglielmo della Porta, che fu oggetto addirittura di scandalo perché la figura in basso a sinistra del monumento, rappresentante la giustizia, aveva avuto come modella Giula Farnese , sorella del papa ed amante bambina di Alessandro VI . La figura fu ritenuta oscena tanto che Clemente ottavo accennò ad una coscia “scoperta fino al vaso naturale” dopo che si sparse la voce che gli inglesi usavano masturbarsi davanti alla statua. Nel 1595 la statua della giustizia fu ricoperta con una sorte di coltre di metallo che i custodi di San Pietro mostravano segretamente saai turisti per uno zecchino sollevando la coperta.
Nella Chiesa di San Pietro in Vincoli
La Morte appare nel modo più lugubre ed allo stesso tempo abbagliante nel candore delle ossa e ti guarda con le vuote orbite di un teschio.
Cew ne sono addirittura due di teschi nella Chiesa di Santa Maria del Priorato all’Aventino.
Uno dei più alti vertici di macabro si tocca a Via Veneto dove , sotto la chiesa di Santa Maria della Concezione, c’è l’Ossario ipogeo dei Cappuccini .dove sono accumulate le ossa di circa quattromila frati morti tra il sei e l’ottocento.
Posso testimoniare, avendo partecipato, che negli anni cinquanta gli studenti di medicina hanno saccheggiato l’ossario di teschi e femori.
Un’altra chiesa dedicata alla mania tutta barocca di enfasi della Morte la cvhiesa di Santa Maria dell’orazione e morte, in via Giulia. Era nota come sede della “Compagnia della Buona Morte “ una associazione di volontari che si dfedicavano aslla raccolta dei cadaveri. Vi sono tutt’ora circa ottomila cadaveri ben composti.
Infine la chiesa dei Santi Vincenzo e Anastasio che si trova all’angolo di piazza Fontana di Trevi , di fronte alla fontana e palazzo Poli.
Qui per secoli sono state depositate quelle che i romani chiamano“le sacre budella” In effetti si imbalsamavano i papi ma prima dovevano essere eviscerati ed i visceri , accuratamente sigillati, Ancora oggi si conservano mi precordi di ben ventidue pontefici.
Una cronaca del settecento racconta :”Morto il papa, lo speziale ed i frati della bolla gli tamponeranno la bocca ,le narici e le orecchie con mirra, incenso e aloè….da ultimo il volto sia stropicciato e si unga con buon balsamo insieme alle mani.
Il Belli ricorda l’evento .. Morto un Papa, sparato e profumato
L ’interiori santissimi in vetrina
Se conseggneno in mano delò curato
E lui co li su ‘bboni fraticelli
Ch’è un museo de corate e de sciorcelli
Roma il 20 settembre 1870
Oggi Roma compie 2762 anni. Alcuni favolosi ed altri nefasti.Ma io qui voglio parlarvi deòlla Roma capitale d’Italia. La roma del Belli, Stendhal e Proust.
Il censimento organizzato dopo l’arrivo dei piemontesi registra circa 230 mila abitanti. Pensare che Napoli ne aveva oltre un milione.
E’la Roma del Belli, Stendhal, Proust.
Le loro testimonianze danno sensazioni bivalenti. Un insieme enigmatico e inquietante di mollezza e vivacità plebea, di rozzezza ed incanto.
La maggioranza della popolazione vive nella zona bassa, la città rinascimentale e seicentesca racchiusa nell’ansa del Tevere che fa perno su piazza Navona. E in quei vicoli bui, impregnati di olezzo gattesco, in quelle mura spesso sbrecciate , insozzate da scritte oscene (Belli, icastico :”si vedo un muro bianco, lo je lo sfregno”) che si ritrova la Roma che il poeta percorse : stradine strette, archi fiocamente con difficoltà rischiarate da lumini, immagini sacre di ogni tipo circondate sempre da ex voto, un reticolo di viuzze quasi sempre senz’aria e luce, soggette alle continue inondazioni nel fiume, disseminate di escrementi maleodoranti di vari quadrupedi.
Ovunque regnavano un perenne sentore di umido e pozzolana. I fabbricati di modesta fattura, tirati su con materiali rimediati, prive di ornamenti, piccoli androni che si perdono in misteriose oscurità.
Quelle case basse e malsane favorivano certamente il diffondersi di malattie endemiche. Il tifo o il colera, mali che oggi classificheremmo come terzo mondo, conseguenza delle miserevoli condizioni igieniche, dalla rustica alimentazione forse molto gustosa ma anche molto squilibrata.
Lo spazio dei Fori, luogo leggendario per diversi secoli . centro politico e commerciale del mondo, veniva usato per pascolare le bufale.
La Rupe Tarpea trasformata in stenditoio. Ai più fastosi e maestosi monumenti, saccheggiati per nuove costruzioni, s’erano andati sovrapponendo decine di abominevoli abituri, talvolta case altre volte botteghe.
La città era pericolosa e3de alla “Ave Maria” erano tutti barricati in case malsane.
Tutta questa devastazione seguita al dominio del mondo, il Belli( e non solo) la attribuiva al papato ed alla curia che stavano addirittura abolendo molte festività con la scusa di ipotetiche epidemie.
Belli è il migliore testimone nel raccontare la città dei sei papi che hanno regnato negli anni in cui visse.
Fu un’epoca di grandi agitazioni. Di movimenti politici, di occupazioni militari e restaurazioni, il tutto in un centro sordido e spopolato, popolato da plebi analfabete e fra le più incolte e ciniche, mentre altrove si diffonde la consapevolezza che lo stato chiesa è ormai un anacronismo.
La violenza che descrive il Belli è semplice e brutale, come la forza che la provoca e come i piatti che quel popolo di pecorai analfabeti si alimentava.
La cucina romana era (ed ancora oggi)fatta di sapori forti ed ingredienti primitivi. Alla base ci sono : l’abbacchio cotto sul fuoco, la pasta alla amatriciana satura di lardo, la coda di bue alla vaccinara, i rigatoni con la pagliata vale a dire una pasta grevemente insaporita con gli intestini di vitello da latte. Tra i formaggi il pecorino, ricavato come dice il nome dal latte di pecora, grasso e piccante. Una cucina rustica, sapida, rozza, povera come quelli che l’avevano inventata.
Zoccolette e Convertite
Tra i toponimi più curiosi del centro storico ne troviamo alcuni dal riferimento, in parte velato, alla prostituzione. Non stiamo parlando di un’improbabile “via delle Lucciole”, che peraltro esiste a Cagliari, ma di via delle Convertite e via delle Zoccolette. La prima è una traversa che da via del Corso conduce a piazza San Silvestro. Qui dai primi del Cinquecento esisteva un monastero di clausura che comprendeva la chiesa di Santa Lucia della Colonna. L’idea di un luogo dove dare supporto spirituale alle peccatrici per tornare sulla retta via fu di papa Leone X, che istituì il monastero con la dichiarata intenzione di aiutare le meretrici e le peccatrici in genere ad abbandonare la via della perdizione. Forse la controversa missione tra lo spirituale e il sociale fu all’origine di una serie di sfortune che flagellarono il monastero, la chiesa e la stessa via. Nel 1617 l’intero complesso fu distrutto da un terribile incendio e”“subito ricostruito, e in quell’occasione la via prese il nome che mantiene tutt’oggi. Pochi anni più tardi la sfortuna toccò la chiesa di Santa Lucia. Fu prima sconsacrata e poi definitivamente demolita per permettere l’allargamento della strada. Il monastero ricostruito non ebbe miglior sorte, divenne fabbrica per la manifattura del tabacco e poi demolito sotto il pontificato di Pio IX. L’attività di conversione delle povere donne continuò fervida sull’altra sponda del Tevere in via della Lungara a Trastevere, presso la chiesa e il convento di San Giacomo, anche questo demolito a fine Ottocento per la costruzione dell’argine del Tevere. Oggi sopravvivono solo la chiesa e un pezzetto di convento con un bel campanile romanico risalente al Trecento.
Nel rione Regola si trova l’altra via dal nome curioso e in questo caso forse ambiguo. Via delle Zoccolette si chiama così per la presenza nel Settecento del conservatorio dei Santi Clemente e Crescentino di cui una parte fu dedicata da Clemente XI all’accoglienza di giovani donne orfane e senza marito. Una lapide, sopravvissuta e incastonata nel muro “convento, quasi all’incrocio con via dei Pettinari, lascia pochi dubbi: “Pie povere zitelle e zoccolette”. A differenza del convento delle Convertite, qui si faceva un’attività diremmo oggi preventiva, allo scopo di evitare che le piccole donne prendessero la strada della prostituzione. Per essere ammesse nel convento bisognava essere orfane di entrambi i genitori o come minimo di madre, e in questo caso erano figlie di “mater ignota” da cui si fa derivare la malaparola “mignotta” che in romanesco significa proprio meretrice. Lo zampino del popolo deve esserci entrato anche per il termine “zoccolette”. Già a metà dell’Ottocento il Ruffini ritiene il nome di origine popolare. Le piccole del convento erano così chiamate per gli zoccoli che portavano, oppure per la loro abilità a confezionare zoccoli, una delle competenze artigiane che apprendevano nel convento. Da qui a definire “zoccole” le prostitute, il passo è piuttosto”breve.
La Rupe Tarpea
Called Tarpeian the escarpment of the South side of the Capitol, from which rushed those guilty of crimes against the State: custom attested from ancient times up to 1° sec. of the Empire.
Rome is the city of the seven hills, grown on these hills, including inside walls, built by Servius Tullius, the sixth of the seven Kings. Esquilino, Viminale, Quirinale, Celio, Aventine, Palatine and Capitoline Hill were the names of packages offered a strategic retreat, but mostly healthy in a higher position than the Plains infested by malaria and often flooded by the Tiber. Nowadays it is not easy to trace and appreciate the heights, the dense urban fabric and the overlap of various layers over the centuries hides the natural slopes, turning them into simple uphill roads attract little attention.
Along the vico Jugario, just below the South side of the Capitol, the holiest of the seven hills reveals to the visitor his nature "original". At this point the slopes form a veritable Ridge, a steep wall, a formidable defense. The rocks resemble those on which rise the Etruscan cities of Orte and Orvieto. It is easy to understand why our ancestors If those heights. Among rocks and vegetation appears the Saxum Tarpeium or Tarpeian rock, from which the Romans made precipitate traitors sentenced to a terrible death. Church to Find a side of you Didi Santa Maria della Consolazione, where the steps lead to the top of the Hill. The singular tradition goes back a mythologized event occurred in the fourth century BC. Rome was at war with the Sabines of Titus Tatius pressed to penetrate into the city. Nothing could have against the defenses, if they hadn't received help from a Roman vestal virgin Tarpeia, opened the door. The woman betrayed him to receive in Exchange for gold and precious metals. Legend has it that the Sabines kept the promise, the covered literally of all jewelry had up to disposal. The unfortunate event took place at the cliff that we still see today, that "since that day was called Tarpeian rock and became the place to kill the traitors of Rome. "
Roma e Caravaggio
Among the privileges offered by Rome there is the possibility to admire the masterpieces of Caravaggio. Anywhere in the world this would be enough to give fame to a city.
Wanting to build some sort of Caravaggio's route, we may start from Piazza del Popolo. The Church of s. Maria del Popolo where next to works by Bramante, Pinturicchio, Raphael, Brnini and Sansovino, we find two wonderful paintings by Caravaggio: "the crucifixion of St. Peter" and "the conversion of St. Paul." gorgeous Sao Paulo crashed to the ground, his arms to the sky, which was won by faith.
The next Church is the 16th century Church of St. Louis of France ". Here next to Domenichino and Guido Reni, there are three paintings by Caravaggio: "St. Matthew and the Angel", calling of Saint Matthew "martyrdom of Sa Matthew." Outstanding is the brutal realism of martyrdom and the character of the characters accentuated by dramatic cutting of light.
Then, a few steps from piazza Navona, the Church of "St. Augustine", whose façade was covered with travertine slabs taken from the Colosseum, where you can admire the "Madonna of the pilgrims," one and most disturbing of the master. Even to a layman that Virgin's extraordinary vision catches the eye which is actually any Roman woman and child in breaccio, beauty woman as was the model Lena that she posed for the picture.
There should be other paintings in other churches, as for esempipo in "Santa Maria in Trastevere" but thanks to Napoleon, today we find them in Paris, at the Louvre Museum.
The backgrounds or the background of Caravaggio, charming in a most fascinating events of the history of art, is Rome in the late 16th century and the beginning of the next century: disorder, ferocity, miracles and atrocities of faith, an ongoing turbulence, a city shaken by one hundred Practical and religious problems that Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, known as "Il Caravaggio" becomes a mirror. Its bad nomination stems largely from the character of its dark background painting of his terrible realism.
Saints and virgins don't stare at the sky. In glory and martyrdom, remain first humans showing signs of fatigue, dewlla old age and death. CISO just the torture and death in those paintings. Reverse victims on the ground in their blood and the assassins with knife in hand while looking to land the punch.
That Rome was the capital of the Catholic Church? Little more than a village crossed by the sheep and littered with maestore ruins, memories of Imperial Rome.
Can a young Roman innkeeper with a great heart to become a good Patriot? The story of Angelo Brunetti, said they assigned him as a child, pet name Ciceruacchio, tell us just that.
Born in the Campus Martius by a farrier in the ward, had two jobs: by day it was the Carter at the port of Ripetta, where it carried the wines coming from the Castelli romani, at night he ran a tavern near piazza del Popolo. Ciceruacchio was well liked by the Roman people, both for the great help he had lent to fellow citizens during an outbreak of cholera in 1837, due to its large capacity dialectic which made him popular sentiments.
Once, in 1846, during a rally, Pope Pius IX publicly thanked for having granted the long-awaited reforms. In the following years he became the organizer of demonstrations in support of the State, "the Gospel" then in 1848, after the Pontiff's about-face with the address by April 29, married the cause of Mazzini and joined the revolution of 1849. Were difficult months during which Ciceruacchio not spared, thanks to the support of the two sons Lorenzo and Luigi, and helped the civilian population and the combatants, coordinating the work of several nurses and setting up eateries. The Roman Republic fell, and Ciceruacchio in July left Rome to Venice, where Garibaldi was resisting to the Austrians. During the trip, along with a group of companions, was intercepted in the vicinity of the Po delta by a patrol boat. Attempted to flee, but after finding shelter in an Inn made the mistake of asking for help to the local population, who delivered them to the enemy.
Ciceruacchio was thus arrested and shot at midnight on 10 August 1849, along with his son Lorenzo, who was only thirteen years old, the priest Stephen Ramorino, Lorenzo Parodi in Genoa and to Luigi Bossi of "reality, the eldest son of Angelo Brunetti (she changed her name after a murder charge), Francesco Laudadio of Narni, Paolo Baccigalupi and Gaetano Fenwick. owing to false last names provided There was not just the certainty of his death, so much so that some thugs also managed to extort some money to his wife in Exchange for news about a possible return. Today Ciceruacchio rests under the Janiculum Hill, as a true patriot. In the air of those Plains where he was betrayed still echoes the lament of mondine, despair over the death of a hero: «Fiol d'un can d'un skins/who has betrayed whom seven/in the midst of a priest's ring/and el fiol del dotor. ' "
La Cecala d'oggi
Una Cecala, che pijava er fresco
all'ombra der grispigno e de l'ortica,
pe' da' la cojonella a 'na Formica
cantò 'sto ritornello romanesco:
Fiore de pane,
io me la godo, canto e sto benone,
e invece tu fatichi come un cane.
Eh! da qui ar bel vedé ce corre poco:
rispose la Formica
nun t'hai da crede mica
ch'er sole scotti sempre come er foco!
Amomenti verrà la tramontana:
commare, stacce attenta...
Quanno venne l'inverno
la Formica se chiuse ne la tana.
ma, ner sentì che la Cecala amica
seguitava a cantà tutta contenta,
uscì fòra e je disse: ancora canti?
ancora nu' la pianti?
Io? fece la Cecala manco a dillo:
quer che facevo prima faccio adesso;
mó ciò l'amante: me mantiè quer Grillo
che 'sto giugno me stava sempre appresso.
Che dichi? l'onestà? Quanto sei cicia!
M'aricordo mi' nonna che diceva:
Chi lavora cià appena una camicia,
e sai chi ce n'ha due? Chi se la leva.
Fiume bojaccia, fiume morto, infido e zozzo.
“Fiume bojaccia, fiume morto, infido e zozzo” River cloak of archaeological treasures (though the eyes of Roma popolana the most
precious jewel that Tiber has swallowed are the burnt remains of the float de Er Ciriola in Ponte Sant'Angelo, symbol of cheerful capital addressed the postwar period, when the city was "poor but beautiful").
How many did they say at Rome. Who is there to agonize; It stinks in the summer when the heat wave comes crashing down on its waters; that serves no purpose, except to entertain the four cats rowing clubs; that is only a haven for rats and diseases. Only to breathe the Miasms is there from getting sick, never be that then you ended up, it would be certain death with no chance of escape.
Is over and the time of the flooding, when the river "esciva holes" with a full assassin who submerged dikes and roads, houses and churches, bridges and buildings, leaving mota and dead from crying everywhere.
Today the Tiber, which once Lil meanderings of Rome making it unmistakably his, looks likely to be just one more element of the capital, a placid accessory flowing oozy and yellowish under cars that clog the Lungotevere nearing collapse and yet there was a time when those waters formed a border between the city that had developed on the left bank and Trastevere , a place of ill repute, which keep away. Is born from this separation the pride of the inhabitants of the thirteenth district of Rome, that feel "noantri" (us) compared with "voantri" (you people) born on the fortunate. And it is no coincidence that the party, in fact, de Noantri is nothing but an homage to that river that separated them from the world, but that once had been worshipped as a God, and fiumaroli, his priests. "Starting from Ponte Cavour, also known as" suicide bridge "since that night on July 9 1890, cursed when Augustus Formilli threw off the catwalk del porto di Ripetta his wife Rosa Abdul. It was a small episode of crime capitolina, but had an enormous impact on the Romans, so much so that many overlook was elected to place dedicated to die the bridge to excellence, though, is only one. It's called Ponte Sant'Angelo and from there passed all traffic to and from the Vatican. In short, it was one of those symbolic places of the vanished Rome. Here was lifted the gallows for executions officiated by Mastro Titta; Here we came to buy fish in the morning; Here you were going to ask for favors and prayers to priests who once, in Rome were the masters; here during antiquity there was the entrance to the tomb of Emperor Aelius Hadrianus. And here, finally, he concentrated much of the traffic of the first Holy year in 1300, an event of immense, instituted by Pope Boniface VIII and also mentioned by Dante in the eighteenth song of his hell. The historical evidence of such central importance lies in the ten statues that Bernini and his school were called to sculpt to decorate it. Ten Angels majestic that in 1667 Pope Clement IX "representing the passion of Christ. Had been made by different collaborators and everyone on the base were engraved verses describing the stages of the ascent to Calvary.
But if Ponte Sant'Angelo stands for monumentality is a River that you have to go to enjoy the best glimpse. It meets at the end of Palazzo Spada, Lungotevere dei Tebaldi, piazza Farnese. Until the last Jubilee was still covered with a metal superstructure which had applied in 1877, but today it enchants with its 15th-century shapes desired by Sixtus IV finally free. At the time it was a masterpiece, with its unusual slope barette and "Red sea bream", the hole in the Central pylon, which measures the danger of floods of the river. On the other side you stand "forward instead, the Tiber offers one of its most charmed: the Tiber island.
As a huge stone vessel, the island current and centuries cracks, creating a microcosm United with capital from ponte Cestio, the construction of which intervened three emperors, and Ponte Fabricio, still intact from the 62 ad. A microcosm in which the hospital; Caetani Castle, one of the few surviving medieval buildings in Rome; a period of great historical and architectural value pharmacy; a very old church and the restaurant of the unforgettable Sora Lella Fabian. "
"The hospital, between the points the most exciting landscape Rome, so that it would be hardly worth of fake an illness to hospitalize in otherwise inaccessible to those not sick to visit, it's not here by chance. Meets, in fact, where once, about three centuries before Christ, was ' the Temple of aesculapius, the patron god of health and medicine. The same shape of the island recalls the Foundation of that temple was born, as always for God's will, while a Commission of scholars-seeking solutions to solve a severe plague which struck the city-did he return to Rome by ship, carrying some of the sacred snakes of aesculapius. It happened that one of the reptiles escaped, hiding out to hide between the vegetation of the island and the boat was wrecked on its shores. Much was enough. Since that time the land was consecrated to God and, just to be sure, even the remains of the ship were incorporated under the slabs of travertine that would mimic the lines of the ancient craft.
The river and the island
“ Er barcarolo va contro corente
e quanno canta l'eco s'arisente
si' e' vero fiume che tu dai la pace
Fiume affatato fammela trova'..”
This song Roman cuisine is the most beautiful expression of a people and a culture that is slowly disappearing as a race in extinction. " This song Roman cuisine is the most beautiful expression of a people and a culture that is slowly disappearing as a race in extinction. " River bojaccia, River dead, treacherous and dirty. River cloak of archaeological treasures (though the eyes of Roma popolana the most precious jewel that Tiber has swallowed are the burnt remains of the float de Er Ciriola in Ponte Sant'Angelo, symbol of cheerful capital addressed the postwar period, when the city was "poor but beautiful").
How many did they say at Rome. Who is there to agonize; It stinks in the summer when the heat wave comes crashing down on its waters; that serves no purpose, except to entertain the four cats rowing clubs; that is only a haven for rats and diseases. Ended the era of the mills, port of Ripa Grande and di Ripetta, laundresses and dei barcaroli. Did the diving from boats and the days the Rad, the small beach in Trastevere; over the marana, immortalized forever by Alberto Sordi di Un giorno in Pretura.
Today the Tiber, which once Lil meanderings of Rome making it unmistakably his, looks likely to be just one more element of the capital, a placid accessory flowing oozy and yellowish under cars that clog the Lungotevere nearing collapse.
Yet there was a time when those waters formed a border between the city that had developed on the left bank and Trastevere, a place of ill repute, which keep away. Is born from this separation the pride of the inhabitants of the thirteenth district of Rome, that feel "noantri" (us) compared with "voantri" (you people) born on the fortunate. And it is no coincidence that the party, in fact, de Noantri is nothing but an homage to that river that separated them from the world, but that once had been worshipped as a God, and fiumaroli, his priests. Yes, because it is not possible to speak of the Tiber without mentioning this special "caste" of Romans for which the river is everything: life, sports, leisure, fishermen or kayakers and rowers Were "simply swimming and" a river "passed us by life. Were living memories of a life "freshwater", almost impossible to find in Rome today.
Fortunately, since April 23, 2003, the municipality has set up a mini fleet of ferries that accompany in cruise visitors along two routes, from Ponte Duca D'Aosta on the Isola Tiberina and Ponte Marconi in Ostia Antica. Is the last bite of fiumarola life on a sunny day; to those who feel attracted by the story of the bridges that bypass "starting from Ponte Cavour, also known as" suicide bridge "since that night on July 9 1890, cursed when Augustus Formilli threw off the catwalk del porto di Ripetta his wife Rosa Abdul. It was a small episode of crime capitolina, but had an enormous impact on the Romans, so much so that many overlook was elected to place to die, the bridge to excellence, though, is only one. It's called Ponte Sant'Angelo and from there passed all traffic to and from the Vatican. In short, it was one of those symbolic places of the vanished Rome. Here was lifted the gallows for executions officiated by Mastro Titta; Here we came to buy fish in the morning; Here you were going to ask for favors and prayers to priests who once, in Rome were the masters; here during antiquity there was the entrance to the tomb of Emperor Aelius Hadrianus. And here, finally, he concentrated much of the traffic of the first Holy year in 1300, an event of immense, instituted by Pope Boniface VIII and also mentioned by Dante in the eighteenth song of his hell. The historical evidence of such central importance lies in the ten statues that Bernini and his school were called to sculpt to decorate it. Ten Angels majestic that in 1667 Pope Clement IX "representing the passion of Christ. Had been made by different collaborators and everyone on the base were engraved verses describing the stages of the ascent to Calvary.
THERE'S A MULTIETHNIC ROME
"There is a magic in the heart of the city. We're talking about piazza Vittorio, a crossroads of cultures and races in Rome in the new millennium. In the neighborhood are mixed various foreign communities, from the Chinese one, very active from a commercial point of view, so as to have detected nearly all tasks "D" of local retail that Bangladeshi, devoted mostly to fatigue jobs in restaurants and yet well integrated with Roman residents, despite religious and cultural differences. Within this global context, Rome holds one of its mysteries.
In the gardens surrounded by the tram rails leading to the stazione Termini, Porta Alchemica lurks, also known as the Porta Magica, a monument built between 1655 and 1680 by marchese Massimiliano Palombara at his residence on the Esquiline Hill (at that time the area was open country). The Villa Palombara, this the name of origin, had six gates, and the "magic" is the only one left.
The Marquis was a scholar, famous cities like fond of esotericism. He used to practice this interest both in first person is funding research at the laboratory of the villa.
One night in the dwelling was hosted a pilgrim, the Alchemist Francesco Giustiniani Bono, now in search of a mysterious herb can produce gold. The legend, passed down in 1802 by "" by Abbot and scholar Francesco Girolamo Cahill, said that the next morning was seen to disappear through the door leaving behind some golden scales, perhaps the result of the experiment, and a card full of magical symbols and riddles, probably the formula of the philosopher's stone.
The scholar also left some notes, which, however, were incomprehensible to the Marquis, who decided to hack the recipe on the magic door in hopes that someone else could interpret the mysterious symbolism.
Currently the port is located in the North corner of the gardens of piazza Vittorio, but his original position was about fifty metres to the intersection of via Carlo Alberto with via di San Vito.
In 1873 was dismantled and rebuilt in 1888 in the gardens, on an old wall of the Church of Sant'Eusebio, and next were added two statues of the God Bes, who were originally in the gardens of the Quirinal Palace.
Today, citizens of "" races through the gardens of piazza Vittorio the curiously, they read the mysterious etchings that overhang and imagine as a passage for who knows what size "
In Rome There is Chair of the HELL
Did you know?
The great contradictions are one of the features of mystic and Christian Rome, rebellious and devout. In the city of the Pope there is also a place for the Devil's Chair. It is named after the ruins set in piazza Callistio African district, including Helium parked cars, work in progress and palaces with balconies. In the area there are several bars and restaurants, but many years ago prostitutes and stragglers were the keepers of the night. And even today, some desperate, coldest nights, use the ruins as a shelter. The wear of time has meant that today we are faced with a kind of high chair a little out of place. But how did it get here? The fantasy of the Romans was satisfied and one of the most popular legends tells that he would be the devil himself to put in this place, then open countryside, his chair to keep her behind the basilica of St. Peter. In old maps of Rome designed by the French military staff officers in 1868, the Chair is present and is referred to as "wretched Chair". The devil probably came later, when because of Interior lights, probably fires from prostitutes to warm up, the Romans passing by there triggered their imagination, combining the fires of hell. The name took so much foot which for a long time the square itself was the 1950s. The devil, however, this time it took a hand, as told by Claudio Rendina in an article published a few years ago on "la Repubblica": in the 1950s the fifties. The devil, however, this time it took a hand, as told by Claudio Rendina in an article published a few years ago on "la Repubblica": in the fifties here was canceled the endorsement Chair of the devil and he appears in the new name of the square, dedicated to Hadrian's Freedman; but you made a mistake. The Freedman was named Helium Callistio and not Callisto, into a vulgarization halfway Callistion, maintaining the original Aelios «i».
ROMA and women
Women in Roman history was relevant. Love, sex, betrayal: Elements that never fail in today's story so as in that of yesterday. So one can classify the so-called "rape of the sabine women" took place a few years after the founding of the city. You tried to cut a deal with neighbouring populations but received a refusal, engineered a plan that I prefer you to tell from an expert: Plutarch "there, as they were about to return to fight again, they were stopped by an amazing sight and difficult to put into words. They saw the daughters of the Sabines, those abducted, throwing some of the one part, and the other on the other, in the midst of the weapons and the dead, screaming and threatening war with husbands and fathers, as if they were possessed by a God. Some had their little arms ... and turned with sweet recalls both the Romans both Sabines. The two sides then departed, giving in to emotion, and that women were in the middle.
Just as told by Plutarch, the women took the balance of the war. Brides made by the Romans, prevented their fathers to create a conflict that would have brought only despair. Duelists stopped fighting and decided to conclude a peace treaty which provided for the Union of the two peoples. Love, therefore, and divided heart ". In the bloody history of ancient Rome, women have conquered a role especially if we take into account that the kidnapped women avoided a clash between the Romans and Sabines, musky gory the bloods were even allies.
(that is the meaning of Domus Aurea), located between the Esquiline and Palatine Hills, was one of Nero's most extravagant projects.It was not so much a palace as a series of buildings scattered over a landscaped "countryside" which included an artificial lake. The main building was extravagantly crafted, and boasted rooms and hallways decorated almost entirely in gold. In the case of the Domus, we know the names of the architects in charge of the project, Severus and Celer, and that of Fabullus, the painter who decorated many rooms.
The area of the property was 985 feet long by 295 feet in width or depth. Among the other things there was an amphitheatre, a market, and bath-gymnasium complex, served by an aqueduct 75 Km (50 miles) long. Baths were served by a flow of both salted water and sulphurous one from the Albulae springs near Tivoli. Upon the Caelian Hill there were beautiful gardens, zoos, woods and parks where all kinds of animals roamed. There were hundreds of statues, grottoes, fountains, nymphaeums, porticoes painted with romantic landscapes; multiple waterfalls flowed all over. The lake - where the Colosseum was later built - was surrounded by woods and fake sea villages, and it was so big that ships could manoeuvre in it. The rooms of the palace were decorated with rare stones and mother of pearl; in the banquet rooms the guests were inundated by flowers and perfumes from the ivory ceilings (R. Lanciani, Rovine...). One of the most famous of these rooms featured a circular roof painted with the stars and the planets, that revolved mechanically imitating the movement of the stars-
This Palace, perhaps the grandest ever constructed, after a few years of splendour, unfortunately it's over was buried as a foundation for a new emperor. The visible difference to visitors between the Roman Forum and via of the Empire that the cross, from the idea of scary and repeated layering that Rome suffered. In any places in the world there has been a multiple layering of such proportions. Emile Zola interptretò this phenomenon as a sort of way where with Jec and Raphael Paganism reappears in the Christian spirit. The pagan Rome intersects with Christianity in a unique harmony! "
The TWENTIETH ANNIVERSARY THERE was continuing to talk about Rome,
We skip over 21 centuries talking. This is a particular neighborhood, second largest tourist attraction in Rome. Live from 1960 (the year of the Olympics in Rome). I don't talk about it of course for this but why the EUR has its own story that we call: "20 years that there was no". The EUR was supposed to be the venue of the world fair of 1942 (after the one in New York and Paris in the 37 39.
Instead of specifically adapted sheds Mussolini wanted to astonish the world by creating a sort of mini city. He studied many areas and eventually chose rightly that area abutted delle tre fontane which legend says be poured from the bounce of the head of Paul of Tarsus beheaded. Across the Tiber and the ferrovia Roma-Ostia which could be used for exposure. Also the EUR was halfway between Rome and the sea creating a premonition of the Duce he saw Rome extending down to the sea.
However, the EUR was not used for the 42 "cause" but remains the grandest realization urban 900, that conceived and designed with more care and to which t5utti the best architects and urban planners have worked together at the time. Even today stands on one of the beautiful buildings one written in Mosaic: "the third Rome will propagate over the three hills, on the banks of the sacred river, gather up the beaches of the Tyrrhenian Sea (phrase attributed to Gabriele D ' Annuinzio
There are many fine public and private buildings and, while not foreseeing the current traffic chaos, roads are wide and tree-lined up perfectly.
The beautiful Boulevard of Civilisation is closed at the end by the imposing Palazzo della Civiltà e del Lavoro or as the inhabitants of EUR: The Coliseum square, That dazzling cube, adorned with dozens of statues of the ancient Romans, ended up becoming the icon of EUR and as "logo" of the Italian architecture of the 900. Both day and night lit up is like a metaphysical abstraction.
Aloft another inscription of the time: "a nation of poets, artists, heroes, Saints of thinkers, scientists, navigators, transmigratory" other monuments worth seeing are the basilica of St, Peter and Paul, with the largest dome in Rome after St. Peter; and then the Congress. "
Certainly the EUR was a laudable attempt to mediate between classical models, certain reasons of the ideal city of Leonardo and the Renaissance, in a remarkable rationality of spaces and facilities. Even today, thanks to the beautiful pond, the Sports Palace, the EUR is still in the avenues, in perspectives, limpronta of the ideal city traffic chaos while multicolored.
A final note: in a city like Rome deeply imbued with religiosity and strewn everywhere by churches and chapels, the EUR will remain solely secular neighborhood with only the St. Peter and Paul, despite numerous attempts of religious settlements.
Le origini di Roma
What sources? The legend of Romulus and Remus know it all. But not everyone knows about the various versions of how they came to the world the legendary twins. The mother seems to be Vestal Rhea Silvia, Princess of Alba Longa, and as such bound to chastity. She found herself pregnant (apparently from Mars in person!). So tells Virgilio.
There are other versions, like the one reported by Plutarch, that Tarchezio, King of Alba Longa, assists terrorized the entry into the House of a giant penis very grumpy (still Mars?) that, in order to calm, asking to become a vestal virgin. Tarchezio forces his daughter to please the big penis and she becomes pregnant. Thus were born twins who, rejected by the King, you decide to get them killed. Abandoned in a basket on the waters of the Tiber, the twins are being saved because the waters recede and a she-Wolf down surrounding mountains astata, feeds them by offering them her breasts. Livy suggests that it wasn't a real Wolf, but Larezia, who was often his body to the shepherds, prostituting myself nicknamed "Wolf".
The funny thing happened when in 900 the fascists decided, unaware of the history, calling children "sons of lula" implicitly declared, as one would say today in Rome: "sons of a bitch"
Beloved granddaughter want to talk to you about your luck. LUCKY ENOUGH TO BE BORN IN ROME. To be able to see how great this city contains more than two thousand years of history, unique in the world! I unfortunately I was born elsewhere (Milan) but Rome adopted me and I can read Belli and Trilussa as few Romans.
However, today I bring you the review of Rome-absolutely neutral and non-partisan – three great men and non-Roman writers but loved this city.
ROME SEEN FROM GOETHE: "Yes, I'm finally arrived in this capital of the world! ... Through the Tyrolean Alps I went almost to flight ... The eagerness to get to Rome was so great and so was increasing all the time, that I could no longer star fermo, and Florence I've held that three hours. Here I am now in Rome, quiet, and, apparently, quieted for a lifetime ... All dreams of my youth now see them alive; early recordings of which I remember (my father had placed in an anteroom the views of Rome), now I see in reality and everything from time knew, of paintings and drawings, of branches or woodcuts, chalk or corks, everything now is collected before the eyes, and wherever I go, I find an ancient knowledge in a world stranger. Everything is what I expected and everything is new.
There is only one Roma in the world and I'm here like a duck to water and swimming and I float like bubbles floating over mercury, while would sink any other fluid.
We must break down the thought that greatness is fleeting; but rather, reflecting that the past was great, we must acquire courage to produce something remarkable, which in turn, even when it fell into disrepair, energize posterity in a noble task, as they never fail to do our predecessors. "
ROME SEEN FROM STHENDAL: "from the table on which I write I see three quarters of Rome; and in front of me, on the other side of the city rises the majestic dome of St Peter's. In the evening, when the sun goes down, I see through the glass windows of St Peter and a half-hour after this admirable dome stands out on this solid so pure of a twilight sky for some orange topped in the high star who begins to appear. Nothing in the world can be compared with this show. The soul stands watch, a serene happiness penetrates the whole. But it seems to me to be worthy of these feelings, we must love and know Rome for a long time. A young man who has never known the misery you don't understand. Stendhal. "
ROME SEEN FROM ZOLA: "Ah! Rome, wonderful and delicious! We lived in the atmosphere of the time, poor as job, joy continues to breathe the charm. "
ROME SEEN FROM PIERPAOLO PASOLINI: not Roman but excelled interpreter of some Roma, popular, like Testaccio where I met your grandmother whom I adore.... "Already light up candles, brightening Via Zabaglia, Via Franklin, the entire Testaccio, celing mount bald between her big, Lungotevere, black bottom, across the River, which Monteverde masses or blurs invisible on the sky."
(Pier Paolo Pasolini, "Le ceneri di Gramsci")
The hole now is a collection of all remains: what has survived the destruction of the invaders, natural disasters, the looting of the citizens themselves. What's left is ashes, bare walls, debris.
There you will also find indications of place and time. Of people who shook hands the destiny of the world. Julius Caesar was one of them and began his last day.
Among the many places you in the hole are reminiscent of Caesar and his death, there is the so-called "ara", he devoted himself to Octavian. Not far from the beautiful House of the Vestal Virgins, was built a terrace. The dictator's body was cremated.
Caesar was the victim of a conspiracy that today we would define cross. There is everything: pompeians who wanted to avenge Pompey, ex cesariani, professional agitators, republicans, ecc.
Suetonius brought to the event said: "he had inflicted fatal stab wounds but only one was twenty-three. He died in his 56th year of age and was counted among the gods. As for his killers and conspirators lived for more than three years and no one peì to natural causes. Some even gave the death with the same dagger with which had dared to run him through "
"In Italy we Agnostics are a small minority, but 70% of officially" Catholics "is far from the Church and do not attend" (from Card. Martini)
More than 60% of the Italian population interprets the religion as a legacy of tradition: a kind of superstition, such as between the mobsters.
Quant are really Catholics in Italy? How many are actually practitioners? Italian Catholics make up what Jesus called the "Court of the Gentiles".
Is a reference to a Gospel story, Jesus chasing the merchants from the temple, or rather from the area--known as the "Court of the Gentiles" – which was intended to non-Jews curious to watch the activity of the time.
Atheists themselves, in Italy, do not arrive at 8 percent. While more than 70 percent of the population attends mass only at weddings and funerals. Martini said, "assiduous practitioners, but they feel the need for a religious life and collective visibility, are at most a 15-20 percent of the total de baptized Catholics" about baptism, many so-called Catholics are no longer talking baptizing talking confirmand and their children.
However if, as around the world, seeks to eliminate the presence of the cross from classrooms, then "open sky" 50 mioni of so-called Catholic rage without understanding that we are a Democratic Republic and not a theocracy. Not to mention the so-called "religious instruction" which is managed at our expense by catechists, is not history and CONTENT of RELIGIONS but the oldest CATECHISM. When my nephew said that Jesus had brothers and sisters, and he told the "teacher of religion" it was seized with a fit of hysteria at the edge of blasphemy.
These same pseudocredenti however they fought to death against abortion or divorce. Denying terminally ill euthanasia and even the church service if they do and then you give the Church to "celebrate" the burial of a notorious mob boss.
Catholics for appearance but "distant" from the Church.
Motives? Both "perpetual" (recurring since sociology) as a hectic life, which would leave no time to think of God and religion, or the perception of moral Commandments like limiting individual freedom. Some motivations are entirely new and, with different tones of aggressiveness, referring to the scandal of pedophile priests and the recent controversy on the riches and the tax privileges of the Church. But there are two contributing factors that have changed people's mentality: the industrial boom, because wellness in history raises materialism and individualism, and the so-called sexual revolution undertaken by the media, now without limits verging on pornography.
The most revolutionary event, to which few pay attention, it's the end of the transmission of traditional religious culture within their own home. The mononuclear family (except exceptions) does not teach more to pray, it doesn't explain the Decalogue, not transmitting stories, facts and legends. Entrust everything to the school, but in turn the hour of religion became catechism. And so, for the first time in the history of Christianity, broke the chain of memory. Just look around. The children of the middle generation barely knows who is Abraham, Isaac, and Jacobare on ignore. The parables are a mystery. When they themselves will be parents will no longer have anything to pass on.
Sacred time, sacred moments do not exist anymore. The Holy places are for the most part of time tourist spaces and rites such as marriages. Hardly are perceived by family and friends as a sacred action, in which "God is present".
I purposely left for past problems of pedophile priests or corrupt.
I consider them false pretenses to justify themselves. Just think about how much damage the missionaries, Caritas, the guys who go to treat the homeless or the millions of Africans who have greeted the Pope.
Unfortunately the so-called Catholics they inherited from the old medieval church, hypocrisy, cunning, the Inquisition and the curiosity for the mishaps mount the media. You have to appear "Catholics" bestiammiando and trampling on what Christ has done and nice detail
LA LIBERTA' (esiste ?)
I would like to be free, free like a man.
As the most advanced man stands with his intelligence and who defies nature with the incontestable della scienza, wearing the enthusiasm to expand without limits in the cosmos and convinced that the power of thought is the only freedom.
I loved ROME living and reading writers such as Goethe, Sthendal, Zola and then to Pasolini. ROMA is the center of the world and all the great artists have lived, giving sublime art and inestmabile culture in over two thousand years, each year for year.
Experiencing and knowing deeply ROME, are available to contacts, help and reports, by writing to the address below
Si ringraziano : Patrizio Cacciari,Mauro Morellini, Maurizio Bolocchi, Alberto Angela,Claudio Colaiacono